Rolled Coiffures of the 1860s, featuring Rats, Cats, and Mice for the Hair

Rolled Hairstyles, Le Miroir Parisien, 1864.
(Met Museum)

During the 1860s, ladies often wore their hair rolled back at the sides and at the nape of their neck. These rolls were usually created using false hair or “rats.” A rat was a homemade hairpiece made from the hair collected from a lady’s brush each evening. It was used to pad out the rolls and to help them keep their shape. Since it was made from a lady’s own hair, it provided the best match in color and texture.

Some rolled hairstyles of the 1860s were incredibly elaborate. According to the May 1863 edition of Godey’s Lady’s Book:

“Perfect scaffoldings of hair are now built on the head— roll upon roll — puff upon puff.”

Clarissa Coiffure and Morny Headdress.
Godey’s Lady’s Book, 1864.

Such coiffures required more than a few rats to pad out their many rolls. Godey’s describes a style which used “two rats, two mice, a cat, and a cataract.” It sounds a little like fashion sarcasm, but in fact, rats, cats, mice, and cataracts were all names for pieces of hair used to pad out various places on one’s head. As Godey’s explains:

“The rats are the long frizetts of curled hair for the side rolls; the mice are the smaller ones above them; the cat is for the roll laid over the top of the head; and the cataract is for the chignon at the back of the head— which is sometimes called waterfall, cataract, and jet d’eau.”

In my newest Victorian romance A Holiday By Gaslight there is a scene in which the heroine uses rats to style her younger sister’s hair into a waterfall of rolls. The style described is based on an actual hairstyle from 1863 (pictured below), in which the hair was rolled at the sides, with three rolls stacked at the back. The whole was then ornamented with fresh flowers and greenery.

Le Moniteur de la Coiffure, 1863.
(Met Museum)

As an alternative to rats (and mice and cats), many ladies of the 1860s employed false hair or pads. These came in various shapes and sizes and, much like rats, could be rolled into a lady’s coiffure to add thickness and to help the roll hold its shape. False hair, pads, and rats were secured into the hair with hair pins. The whole coiffure could then be sprayed with liquid bandoline. Made of clear gum solution, liquid bandoline was the Victorian equivalent of hairspray.

*Author’s Note: A hairstyle known as “Cats, Rats, and Mice” is mentioned in Margaret Mitchell’s 1936 novel Gone With The Wind. I don’t have anything more about that specific style on my blog, but If you’d like to learn more about Victorian hairstyles in general, please see these articles from my archives:

A Fashionable Coiffure: Rolls, Plaits, and other Popular Hairstyles of 1863

A Simple Coiffure: Basic Hairstyles for Victorian Women of Moderate Means

Gold and Silver Hair Powders for Fashionable Victorian Coiffures

Victorian Hairspray: A Brief History of Gum Solutions and Bandoline

Mimi Matthews is the USA Today bestselling author of The Matrimonial Advertisement, The Pug Who Bit Napoleon, and A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty. She researches and writes on all aspects of nineteenth century history—from animals, art, and etiquette to fashion, beauty, feminism, and law.


Englishwoman’s Domestic Magazine. London: S. O. Beeton, 1860-1863.

Godey’s Lady’s Book. Philadelphia: Louis A. Godey, 1860-1865.

Ladies Companion’ and Monthly Magazine. London: Rogerson and Tuxford, 1861.

Matthews, Mimi. A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty. Barnsley: Pen and Sword Books, 2018.


A Holiday By Gaslight
A Victorian Christmas Novella

England, 1861. Sophie Appersett is quite willing to marry outside of her class to ensure the survival of her family. But the darkly handsome Mr. Edward Sharpe is no run of the mill London merchant. He’s grim and silent. A man of little emotion—or perhaps no emotion at all. Can the two of them ever find common ground?
Find out more or Read an excerpt

Order Today
Amazon | Barnes & Noble | Kobo | iBooks

Advance Praise for A Holiday By Gaslight

“Matthews (The Matrimonial Advertisement) pays homage to Elizabeth Gaskell’s North and South with her admirable portrayal of the Victorian era’s historic advancements in addition to courtship struggles arising from societal castes…Readers will easily fall for Sophie and Ned in their gaslit surroundings.” -Library Journal, starred review

“A graceful love story…and an authentic presentation of the 1860s that reads with the simplicity and visual gusto of a period movie.” -Readers’ Favorite

“A perfect holiday treat for Victorian-loving romantics. Sophie and Ned’s sweet romance is sure to steal your heart.” -Lena Goldfinch, bestselling author of The Unexpected Bride

“[A] wonderfully charming and vividly rich romance, that will have the readers swooning with absolute delight. Perfect!” -Chicks, Rogues and Scandals

“A surprisingly lovely and feminist, sweet romance. Feminist? In Victorian England? Hell, yes. Sophie is a capable woman, a voracious reader, an admirer of Charles Darwin. She’s a custodian of her own agency even (and maybe especially) when so little power is afforded her. I mean, I loved it, y’all. This is smart and adorable and it just feels ‘good’.” -Flavia, NetGalley

“Pairing Prince Albert’s death with the theory of evolution and gaslight making its way into English homes is ingenious…It’s Christmas and there’s a house party – the scene is set for angst, romance and a happy ending. Loved it.” -Rekha, NetGalley

“I don’t usually jump up and down getting all excited about a book but there is a time for everything, and so you can picture me jumping up and down. This novella is delightful!, wonderful!, and perfect for a spirited lift in the Holiday season.” -Dot, NetGalley

© 2015-2019 Mimi Matthews

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2 years ago

I’m so thankful to not have to know how to do these hair styles! :) Thanks for sharing this… it is so interesting!

2 years ago

It seems they used hair extensions just like we do today! Can’t wait for the book release next week,
and I will stay up late to finish it. Love your work, thank you for sharing your gifts! :-)

2 years ago

Fascinating post! Thank you Mimi!

2 years ago

You mean there’s a use for the long curls I shed each time I wash my hair! LOL!

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