Mimi MatthewsMimi Matthews

The Peacock in Myth, Legend, and 19th Century History

Peacock and Peacock Butterfly by Archibald Thorburn, 1917.

Peacock and Peacock Butterfly by Archibald Thorburn, 1917.

In his 1836 book On the Mental Illumination and Moral Improvement of Mankind, Reverend Thomas Dick calls the peacock “the most beautiful bird in the world.”  There are few that would dispute this description; however, throughout history, there has always been more to the peacock than its dazzling plumage.  At various times and in various cultures, it has served as a symbol of good and evil, death and resurrection, and of sinful pride and overweening vanity.  And much like its avian brethren, the crow and the raven, the peacock has figured heavily in folktales and fables, as well as in countless superstitions that still exist today.

First originating in India, peacocks can trace their history back to biblical times.  They are mentioned in the Bible as being part of the treasure taken to the court of King Solomon.  They are also associated with Alexander the Great.  In his 1812 book The History of Animals, author Noah Webster writes:

“As early as the days of Solomon, these elegant fowls were imported into Palestine.  When Alexander was in India, he found them in vast numbers on the banks of the river Hyarotis, and was so struck with their beauty, that he forbid any person to kill or disturb them.”

Blue Peacock by Pieter Pietersz. Barbiers, (1759 - 1842).

Blue Peacock by Pieter Pietersz. Barbiers, (1759 – 1842).

Some folktales assert that peacocks were actually in the Garden of Eden—and not in a good way.  In the 1838 Young Naturalist’s Book of Birds, author Percy St. John relates the Arab belief that peacocks were a “bird of ill omen.”  There are two reasons for this, the first of which, as he explains, was that the peacock had been the cause of the “entrance of the devil into paradise” leading to the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden.  The second reason was that it was believed that “the devil watered the vine” with the blood of the peacock as well as with that of the ape, the lion, and the hog.  Which is why, as St. John writes:

“…a wine-bibber is at first elated and struts like a peacock; then begins to dance, play, and make grimaces like an ape;  he then rages like a lion; and, lastly, lays down on any dunghill like a hog.”

Pavo Cristatus by J. Smit after Joseph Wolf, 1872.

Pavo Cristatus by J. Smit after Joseph Wolf, 1872.

Peacocks were an important symbol in Roman times, most commonly representing funerals, death, and resurrection.  In the Encyclopedia of Superstition, author Richard Webster explains:

“This came about when people noticed that peacocks’ feathers did not fade or lose their shiny lustre.  This was seen as a sign of immortality or resurrection.”

Because of this belief, Webster states that early Christians “decorated the walls of the catacombs” with pictures of peacocks and peacock feathers to “illustrate their faith in resurrection.”  This link with resurrection was carried over into artwork of the period which often depicted peacocks in relation to the Eucharist and the Annunciation.  According to author Christine Jackson in her 2006 book Peacock:

“In typical scenes of art of the period, the peacock was closely linked to the Eucharist by two birds flanking the cup holding the wine…[Paintings of the Annunciation] included a peacock to signify Christ’s eventual rising from the dead.  In scenes of the Nativity of Christ, peacocks were painted near the figure of the child to symbolize the Resurrection.”

The Annunciation, with Saint Emidius by Carlo Crivelli, 1486.(National Gallery, London)

The Annunciation, with Saint Emidius by Carlo Crivelli, 1486.
(National Gallery, London)

This was all very different from early folktales which portrayed peacocks as being responsible for the fall of man.  In fact, rather than depicting them as the devil’s assistants, Jackson reports that in art of this period:

“Owing to their ability to destroy serpents, peacocks were also depicted flanking the Tree of Knowledge.”

In Greek Mythology, the peacock was believed to have sprung from the blood of Argos Panoptes, the hundred-eyed giant.  Later accounts state that it was Hera who, upon the death of Argos, placed his eyes in the peacock’s tail herself or—alternately—turned Argos into a peacock.  Because of this connection, the Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology explains that the peacock was the “special bird of Hera.”

Juno by Joseph Paelinck, 1832.(Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent)

Juno by Joseph Paelinck, 1832.
(Museum of Fine Arts, Ghent)

In addition to being seen as symbols of immortality and resurrection, peacocks figured into more mundane superstitions as well.  Jackson reports that, according to the 15th century Swiss physician Paracelsus:

“…if a Peacock cries more than usuall, or out of his time, it foretels the death of some in that family to whom it doth belong.”

But peacocks did more than foretell death.  Their cry was believed to predict the coming of wet weather, while their presence—or that of their feathers—inside a house might well lead the unmarried ladies in residence to end up old maids.  Peacock feathers were also believed to bring bad luck in a theater, either by initiating disaster among the props and the actors, or by causing the play to fail.

Perhaps what Peacocks are best known for, in terms of historical association, is their long connection with the sins of pride and vanity.  This arises not only from their great beauty, but also from their tendency to strut when displaying their magnificent plumage.  In Renaissance art, for example, the peacock can often be found representing the sin of Pride in depictions of the Seven Deadly Sins.

Pride, The Seven Deadly Sins, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1557.

Pride, The Seven Deadly Sins, Pieter Brueghel the Elder, 1557.

The Victorians continued this association, with many 19th century publications reiterating that the peacock had nothing at all to recommend it but its spectacular beauty.  In the History of Animals, Noah Webster calls the peacock’s voice “loud and unharmonious,” quoting the Italian saying that the peacock “has the voice of a devil, but the plumage of an angel.”  Reverend Dick echoes this sentiment in his book, describing the peacock’s cry as “harsh and disgusting.”  But it was not only the peacock’s voice that was objectionable.  The peacock’s unpleasant personality was also the subject of criticism.  Reverend Dick writes:

“It is so wicked that it will scarcely live with any other bird, except the pigeon; and it tears and spoils every thing it gets a hold of with its bill.”

This variety of skin-deep beauty coupled with excess pride, made the peacock a perfect 19th century moral teaching tool, especially for young people.  As Reverend Dick tells his readers:

“Little boys and girls, be not like the peacock, proud and vain, on account of your beauty and your fine clothes; humility and goodness are always to be preferred to beauty.”

The Preening Peacock by Jehan Georges Vibert, (1840-1902).

The Preening Peacock by Jehan Georges Vibert, (1840-1902).

By the 19th century, peacocks served mainly as fashionable lawn ornaments at fine country houses.  St. John refers to them as “the royal section of the feathered race.”  While the 1844 book of Zoological Sketches calls the peacock “more ornamental than useful,” stating:

“…his form is so elegant, and his plumage so fine, that he is generally kept with great care in the grounds of his owners in the country, for the sake of his beauty; and there he may often be seen, walking with firm and slow steps along the gravel walks, or perched upon some parapet, or on the branch of a lofty tree, while he holds up his head and spreads his richly-coloured train, as if waiting to be admired.”

Though peacocks could frequently be seen in the country, in 19th century London they were still relatively uncommon.  So uncommon, in fact, that according to St. John, the peacock was “allowed a place” in London’s Zoological Gardens.  It was kept amongst the “foreign birds,” where:

“…but for the wires and cages, one might almost imagine it still in a forest glade, on the romantic banks of the Jumna.”

Peacock in a n Alchemical Flask, 16th century.(Image via Wellcome Library CC By 4.0)

Peacock in an Alchemical Flask, 16th century.
(Image via Wellcome Library CC By 4.0)

Thus concludes another of my Friday features on Animals in Literature and History.  I don’t have any specific rescue links for peahens or peacocks, but if you would like to help an animal in need, I encourage you to utilize the following links as resources:

The Avian Welfare Coalition (USA)

The Humane Society of the United States (USA)

Battersea Dogs & Cats Home (UK)


Dick, Thomas.  On the Mental Illumination and Moral Improvement of Mankind.  Philadelphia: Key & Biddle, 1836.

Hard, Robin.  The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology.  London: Routledge, 2004.

Jackson, Christine E.  Peacock.  London: Reaktion Books, 2006.

St. John, Percy Bolingbroke.  The Young Naturalist’s Book of Birds: Anecdotes of the Feathered Creation.  London: Joseph Rickerby, 1838.

Webster, Noah.  The History of Animals.  New Haven: Howe & Deforest, 1812.

Webster, Richard.  The Encyclopedia of Superstitions.  Woodbury: Llewellyn Publications, 2012.

Zoological Sketches.  London: Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, 1844

About Mimi Matthews

USA Today bestselling author Mimi Matthews writes both historical nonfiction and award-winning Victorian romances. Her novels have received starred reviews in Publishers Weekly, Library Journal, Booklist, Kirkus, and Shelf Awareness, and her articles have been featured on the Victorian Web, the Journal of Victorian Culture, and in syndication at BUST Magazine. In her other life, Mimi is an attorney. She resides in California with her family, which includes a retired Andalusian dressage horse, a Sheltie, and two Siamese cats.

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