Animal Welfare in the 19th Century: An Earth Day Overview

Una and the Lion by Briton Rivière, 1880.

There was no official Earth Day in the 19th century, but scholars, essayists, and theologians often pondered the solemn duty that man owed to the natural world.  Admittedly, these ponderings were not generally focused on environmental issues such as the effects of greenhouse gases.  Instead, those in the 19th century—and Victorians especially—focused on conservation and man’s treatment of animals.

The 19th century was a turning point in terms of how Western society viewed the treatment of animals.  In 1800, the first anti-cruelty bill was introduced into Parliament.  Only a few short decades later, in 1824, Richard Martin—along with a group of twenty other animal welfare advocates—founded the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.  Addressing the objects of the society, an 1829 publication by what was then the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals states:

“The evils this Society hopes to lessen contain no fiction, nor is it morbid sensibility that obscures its view; but they are facts too clear which speak, and plead in a tongue well understood by all who can grieve for the distress of others—by all who can blush for the disgrace of mankind—by all who hold sacred the great trusts of God.”

Black Beauty, First Edition, 1877.
Black Beauty, First Edition, 1877.

Throughout the century, books on animal welfare were being published, including the novel Black Beauty by Anna Sewell which came to print in 1877.  Told from the horse’s point of view, Black Beauty reveals the many everyday cruelties to carriage horses in Victorian England.  Many of those cruelties, such as the bearing rein, were motivated by fashion.  Sewell’s commentary on these cruelties holds up a mirror to animal welfare concerns of the Victorian era.  As she has a character state in one scene:

“We have no right to distress any of God’s creatures without a very good reason; we call them dumb animals, and so they are, for they cannot tell us how they feel, but they do not suffer less because they have no words.”

As the century came to a close, organizations were being formed to combat vivisection and other scientific cruelties against animals.  Meanwhile, bird feeding and bird watching became popular pastimes and people began to look with disfavor on the use of plumes in fashionable hats.  The Plumage League—now the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds—was founded in 1889.  And, in the United States, the Audubon Society was formed in 1904.

We have a long way to go in terms of our treatment of animals.  Shelters are filled with unwanted pets, habitats are being decimated, and endangered species are being hunted for sport.  Many believe that it is foolish to act on behalf of animals when there is so much needless suffering and cruelty in the human world.  I strongly disagree.  The plight of humans and animals is inextricably intertwined.  We share the earth together.

Peaceable Kingdom by Edward Hicks, 1834.

Thus concludes another of my Friday features on Animals in Literature and History.  If you are interested in helping an animal in need, I encourage you to utilize the following links as resources:

The Humane Society of the United States (United States)

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (United Kingdom)

Mimi Matthews is the USA Today bestselling author of The Matrimonial Advertisement, The Pug Who Bit Napoleon, and A Victorian Lady’s Guide to Fashion and Beauty. She researches and writes on all aspects of nineteenth century history—from animals, art, and etiquette to fashion, beauty, feminism, and law.

Sources

Forensic Science Advances and Their Application in the Judiciary System.  London: CRC Press, 2011.

McCormick, John.  Reclaiming Paradise: The Global Environmental Movement.  Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1889.

Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.  Objects and Address of the Society.  London: William Molineux, 1829.

Sewell, Anna.  Black Beauty.  n.p. 1877.  Project Gutenberg.  Web.  22 Apr 2016.

Shevelow, Kathryn.  For the Love of Animals: The Rise of the Animal Protection Movement.  New York: Henry Holt, 2008.

Wagner, John A.  Voices of Victorian England.  Oxford: ABC Clio, 2014.

COMING SOON
One of BookBub’s “25 of the Best Books Arriving in 2021”

John Eyre
A Tale of Darkness and Shadow

From USA Today bestselling author Mimi Matthews comes a supernatural Victorian gothic retelling of Charlotte Brontë’s timeless classic.

Yorkshire, 1843. When disgraced former schoolmaster John Eyre arrives at Thornfield Hall to take up a position as tutor to two peculiar young boys, he enters a world unlike any he’s ever known. Darkness abounds, punctuated by odd bumps in the night, strange creatures on the moor, and a sinister silver mist that never seems to dissipate. And at the center of it all, John’s new employer–a widow as alluring as she is mysterious.

Sixteen months earlier, heiress Bertha Mason embarked on the journey of a lifetime. Marriage wasn’t on her itinerary, but on meeting the enigmatic Edward Rochester, she’s powerless to resist his preternatural charm. In letters and journal entries, she records the story of their rapidly-disintegrating life together, and of her gradual realization that Mr. Rochester isn’t quite the man he appears to be. In fact, he may not be a man at all.

From a cliff-top fortress on the Black Sea coast to an isolated estate in rural England, John and Bertha contend with secrets, danger, and the eternal struggle between light and darkness. Can they help each other vanquish the demons of the past? Or are some evils simply too powerful to conquer?

Find out more or Read an Excerpt

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Advance Praise for John Eyre

“In this thrilling remix of Charlotte Brontë’s work, Matthews skillfully transforms a well-known story into a truly original tale.” -Kirkus Reviews

“Bertha Mason Rochester shines, dominating her scenes with vitality and strength.” -Publishers Weekly

“[Matthews] retells Charlotte Bronte’s classic story in a way that will keep fans of the original novel totally gripped from cover to cover… Fresh and dynamic… Fast-paced and spellbinding…a book you will have a hard time putting down.” -Readers Favorite

“One of the most moving, suspenseful, innovative and remarkable retellings of a classic in the history of, well, ever… Every page is sheer rapture as [Matthews] moulds popular source material into a spell-binding creation so wholly her own.” -Rachel McMillan, author of The London Restoration

“A wonderful sinister atmosphere, deliciously creepy characters, and a female character who is a powerful force… A true homage to the gothic genre without being derivative… Highly, highly recommended!” -Clarissa Harwood, author of Impossible Saints


© 2015-2021 Mimi Matthews

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Vickie
Vickie
5 years ago

Thank you Mimi for reminding us of our obligation to our animal friends. It is taken to heart by many.

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago
Reply to  Vickie

You’re very welcome :) Happy Earth Day!

paper doll
paper doll
5 years ago

Wonderful post as always!

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago
Reply to  paper doll

Thank you so much :) I’m glad you enjoyed it!

Sarah Waldock
Sarah Waldock
5 years ago

Pity the RSPCA didn’t keep up to scratch

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago
Reply to  Sarah Waldock

How do you feel they failed, Sarah?

Sarah Waldock
Sarah Waldock
5 years ago
Reply to  Mimi Matthews

Because of their policy of putting animals, healthy animals, down if they can’t rehome them quickly, which I’ve seen more than once; because they aren’t interested in checking out people who might be involved in getting cats as dog bait unless you can present them with evidence [well, duh, if I could present evidence it would be the police I’d be going to, right?] and have very little interest in small animals. Having said that, I can’t fault individual officers in the RSPCA, many of whom are very dedicated people. But the policy seems to be pretty laissez-faire except for… Read more »

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago
Reply to  Sarah Waldock

Thanks for the insight, Sarah! Living in the United States, I am not as familiar with the RSPCA’s role in 21st century Britain as I should be. I had no idea that they put healthy animals down if they can’t rehome them. It sounds like, from your description, that they are not unlike some of the bigger animal rescue groups here which run themselves more like a business. It is sometimes hard to know which ones to support and which ones are not all they are cracked up to be.

Sarah Waldock
Sarah Waldock
5 years ago
Reply to  Mimi Matthews

I would like to respect the RSPCA but they are as rich as the church and could afford to do more, and I think that’s what steams me. They have a mass of funds, where smaller charities jogging along on a shoestring manage more compassion. The Blue Cross are always good, the Cats Protection League, Battersea Dogs and Cats Home are the bigger of the rest who are all good.

Angelyn
Angelyn
5 years ago

I used to cry sobs for Beauty. Still do.

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago
Reply to  Angelyn

Me too, Angelyn :(

authorangelabell
authorangelabell
5 years ago

Black Beauty is such a brilliant novel! A true classic in every sense of the word.

Mimi Matthews
Mimi Matthews
5 years ago

It’s a wonderful book! As a little girl, it had a huge impact on my feelings about injustice toward animals.

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