Jane Eyre and the Legendary Gytrash

Snarling dog from Darwin's Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872.(Image Courtesy of The Wellcome Library, CC BY 4.0.)
Snarling dog from Darwin’s Expression of Emotions in Man and Animals, 1872.
(Image Courtesy of The Wellcome Library, CC BY 4.0.)

According to Charlotte Brontë’s 1847 novel, Jane Eyre, a Gytrash is a goblin or spirit which takes the form of a horse, mule, or large dog.  Typically found in the North of England, the Gytrash “haunted solitary ways” and often surprised unwary travelers as they journeyed alone in the dusk.  Jane Eyre herself encounters what she believes to be a Gytrash one bleak, January evening as she is walking from Thornfield Hall to post a letter in the nearby village of Hay.  Alerted to its arrival by a loud, clattering noise, Jane observes:

“It was very near, but not yet in sight; when, in addition to the tramp, tramp, I heard a rush under the hedge, and close down by the hazel stems glided a great dog, whose black and white colour made him a distinct object against the trees.  It was exactly one form of Bessie’s Gytrash— a lion-like creature with long hair and a huge head: it passed me, however, quietly enough; not staying to look up, with strange pretercanine eyes, in my face, as I half expected it would.  The horse followed,—a tall steed, and on its back a rider.  The man, the human being, broke the spell at once.  Nothing ever rode the Gytrash: it was always alone; and goblins, to my notions, though they might tenant the dumb carcasses of beasts, could scarce covet shelter in the commonplace human form.  No Gytrash was this,—only a traveler taking the short cut to Millcote.” 

It is thus that Jane first meets Mr. Rochester and his dog, Pilot.  But what of the Gytrash?  Was it really a 19th century legend?  Or was it something that Charlotte Brontë made up out of whole cloth?  The Oxford English Dictionary describes a Gytrash as:

“An apparition, spectre, ghost, generally taking the form of an animal.”

Oddly, Oxford’s earliest example of the term is Brontë’s own Jane Eyre.  However, looking back even further, I found a brief mention of a Gytrash in William Holloway’s 1839 A General Dictionary of Provincialisms.  Holloway describes the Gytrash as:

“An evil spirit; a ghost.”

Jane Eyre believes she has encountered a Gytrash.Illustration by F. H. Townsend, 1868-1920.
Jane Eyre believes she has encountered a Gytrash.
Illustration by F. H. Townsend, 1868-1920.

Further back still, I discovered another brief, but informative entry on the Gytrash in Reverend William Carr’s 1824 Horæ Momenta Cravenæ.  It reads:

“An evil spirit, a ghost, a pad-foot.”

As much as this connection to Sirius Black (whose animagus form is a big, black dog named Padfoot) might interest those among us who are fans of Harry Potter, it still does not tell us much about the origins of the word Gytrash or what the legend is based upon.  Luckily, a bit of investigating led me to an 1895 report of the Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society.  Within its pages, the report addresses the mystery of the Gytrash, explaining:

“No one, so far as I know, has recorded any views as to the origin of this word.”

The Philological Society then goes on to separate the word Gytrash (or Guytrash) into Guy and Trash, analyzing each word individually with an eye toward discovering the origins of the legend.  With regard to the word Trash:

“Trash is the name of a particular kind of specter.  It is a variant of ‘trush’ for thrush, and that is a variant of ‘thurse’, a goblin; as is fully set forth in this paper under THURSE [as defined in another section of the report].  Hence guytrash [or] gytrash is Guy-Trash, parallel to Hob-Trush, Hob-Thrush, or Hob-Thurse.”

Guy of Warwick, from an illumination in The Talbot Shrewsbury Book, 1444-45.
Guy of Warwick, from an illumination in The Talbot Shrewsbury Book, 1444-45.

As for the word Guy, The Philological Society was at a loss to discover its origins until they happened upon the work of 16th century Scottish poets William Dunbar and Sir David Lyndesay.  In one of Dunbar’s poems, he mentions “the spreit of Gy.”  And in Lyndesay’s 1552 poem titled “Dreme,” he references “the gaist of Gye” while describing, in verse, how he put on various “grotesque disguises to amuse the infant prince” who would later become King James V of Scotland.  The relevant portion of “Dreme” reads:

And sumtyme lyke ane feind, transfegurate,

And sumtyme lyke the greislie gaist of gye,

In diuers formis, oft tymes, disfigurate,

And sumtyme, dissagyist ful pleasandlye.

The Philological Society first assumes that this “gaist of gye” refers to Guy of Warwick, the English romantic hero.  However, they quickly dismiss this theory since none of the popular legends involving Guy of Warwick make reference to Guy’s ghost.  They then go on to address the possibility that Guy in this context is a reference to Guy Fawkes, writing:

“The word guy, meaning ‘any strange looking individual,’ an awkwardly drest person, ‘a fright,’ is regarded as an allusion to the effigy of Guy Fawkes, formerly carried about by boys on the fifth of November.  I suppose this is true; but it may be that the fading ‘spreit of Gy,’ the Gytrash, is also present in this use of guy.”

Guy Fawkes in Ordsall Cave by George Cruikshank, 1839.
Guy Fawkes in Ordsall Cave by George Cruikshank, 1839.

Regardless of its actual origins, in time, the term Gytrash “came to lose all reference to a particular spirit.”  It was eventually applied to any apparition of terror and then, “by mixture of fables” was imagined as a goblin that took the shape of a horse or dog.

Today, the legend of the Gytrash has faded from memory.  That we still know of it at all is largely as a result of Charlotte Brontë having mentioned it in Jane Eyre.  For this reason, if you are a fan of 19th century English Literature, I urge you to take a moment away from goblins, ghosts, spectres, and shapeshifters this Halloween to consider the Gytrash.  The name may be a little odd and the provenance of the legend a bit uncertain, but whether the creature appears in the guise of a dog or a horse, there is surely no more quintessentially 19th century apparition around.

A Study of a Black Dog by Sawrey Gilpin, 1733-1807.
A Study of a Black Dog by Sawrey Gilpin, 1733-1807.

Thus concludes another of my Friday features on Animals in Literature and History.  There is no such thing as a Gytrash in real life, but if you would like to help an actual “pad-foot” in need, I encourage you to contact your local animal shelter or rescue society.  The following links may be useful as resources:

The Humane Society of the United States (USA)

Battersea Dogs & Cats Home (UK)

Mimi Matthews is the author of The Pug Who Bit Napoleon: Animal Tales of the 18th and 19th Centuries (to be released by Pen and Sword Books in November 2017).  She researches and writes on all aspects of nineteenth century history—from animals, art, and etiquette to fashion, beauty, feminism, and law. 

Sources

Brontë, Charlotte.  Jane Eyre.  Ed. Richard Dunn.  Norton Critical Editions.  3rd ed.  New York: Norton, 2000.

Carr, Reverend William.  Horæ Momenta Cravenæ.  London: Hurst, Robinson, & Co, 1824.

Holloway, William.  A General Dictionary of Provincialisms.  Sussex Press, 1839.

Scott, Charles P. G.  “The Devil and his Imps: An Etymological Inquisition.”  Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Society.  Volume 26.  American Philological Association, 1895.


Coming November 2017

The Pug Who Bit Napoleon:
Animal Tales of the 18th and 19th Centuries

From elaborate Victorian cat funerals to a Regency era pony who took a ride in a hot air balloon, Mimi Matthews shares some of the quirkiest and most poignant animal tales of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Find out more…

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21 Comments on "Jane Eyre and the Legendary Gytrash"

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Vickie
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Wonderful article – just in time for a new spirit at Halloween!

Mimi Matthews
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I’m so glad you enjoyed it :)

paper doll
Guest

Wonderfully researched, illustrated and a fantasizing.read ! Charlotte knew a very great deal of this stuff and the bible too . A Celtic child of the moor would

Mimi Matthews
Guest

Aw thanks :). So, glad you enjoyed it. And I think you’re exactly right about Charlotte. I’ll bet she heard these stories as a child!

lslouck
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Read this article and loved it.

Mimi Matthews
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I’m so pleased you enjoyed it. Thanks for commenting!

knotrune
Guest

Interesting. I wonder if the “guy” part actually comes from the old word “guise” with a similar meaning to “disguise” and that the feature of this monster is that it takes another form, ie that of the animal.

Taking your “thurse” even further back, the Old Norse “thurs” or “thyrs” was a giant. Probably the source of the word in Northern England, whose dialect is much influenced by the Vikings.

Mimi Matthews
Guest

You may be right about the word Guy, though I did not see any evidence of it being related to the word disguise in my research. And it is very possible that the word Trash is a descendent of the Old Norse word. It just goes to show how often old myths and legends become intertwined!

knotrune
Guest

I suppose it is hardly a very peculiar coincidence, given the time of year and the nature of the blogs I follow, but you might be interested to read this post which I just read after yours, about the Barghest, a similar kind of monster, and even mentions the Gytrash!

http://theknittinggenie.com/2015/10/15/gabble-retchets-and-tatter-foals-of-old-yorkshire/

Mimi Matthews
Guest
Interesting! Thanks for the link. There are a wealth of legends about goblin-like big, black dogs who roam the English countryside. I focused specifically on the origins of the Gytrash because in legitimate print sources, Jane Eyre is the primary source given. The roots of the actual legend have faded with time and the legend itself has been absorbed into a sort of generic catch all of black dog mythology – which is why I think so many writing on the subject list the Gytrash amongst a litany of other black dog names without ever delving into the origins of… Read more »
Sarah Waldock
Guest
I offer you another background for the word: the word gyte [OED, of unknown origin] meaning out of one’s mind, out of one’s senses. Accepting the dubious etymology of trash this would suggest a hobgoblin that drives you out of your mind. In East Anglia we have Black Chuck or Shuck, who is a huge devil-hound, and you can see his claw-marks on the door of the church at Blytheborough. In some legends he is merely a devil hound, in others he pursues and punishes the evil but is a sucker for lovers. It’s that aspect I chose to pick… Read more »
Mimi Matthews
Guest

Another interesting possibility! I am fascinated by how pervasive the black dog variety of legends have been, especially in the North of England. And each variety has its own distinctive attributes, though often the differences are very slim. The Gytrash seems to be one of the least documented amongst them.

Carol Hedges
Guest

Really interesting stuff!

Mimi Matthews
Guest

Glad you liked it, Carol :)

Angelyn
Guest

Reminds me of the Baskerville hound.

Or, of recent note, the Beast of Bodmin Moor. (I know, the latter has been proven to be nothing more than a black cat–I just got carried away by the conversation!)

Mimi Matthews
Guest

It reminded me of that, too, Angelyn! I researched to find some connection between the Baskerville hound and the word Gytrash but couldn’t. Which was disappointing since I had a great image of Sherlock Holmes to use in my article!

♔ la dauphiine ♔
Guest

Such a perfect post for an impending Halloween! Fantastic, ma cherie!

Mimi Matthews
Guest

Merci :). I’m glad you liked it!

Victoria Addis
Guest

Fascinating! I loved this post– really got me in the mood for some spooky halloween reads!

Mimi Matthews
Guest

So glad you liked it, Victoria :)

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